Unfortunately, a disease like type 2 diabetes affects more and more people every year. In terms of mortality, it is second only to oncology. The danger of such a disease is not only in constantly elevated glucose levels, but in the failure of almost all body functions.
"Sweet" disease is not treated, you can only minimize the risk of complications and avoid insulin-dependent type diabetes. To normalize sugar levels, endocrinologists primarily prescribe a low-carbohydrate diet and regular exercise therapy. It turns out that type 2 diabetes diet and nutritional therapy is the primary and primary therapy.
If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, you should start taking hypoglycemic drugs. It is also necessary to monitor blood counts with a glucometer at home.
Causes and symptoms
Diabetes refers to diseases of the endocrine system when the level of sugar in the blood constantly rises. This is due to a decrease in the receptivity of cells as well as tissues to the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas.
It is remarkable that the body produces this hormone in sufficient quantities, but the cells do not react with it. This condition is called insulin resistance.
There is no single and specific cause of type 2 diabetes, but doctors have identified risk factors, one of which is the age of 40 years. It is at this age that DM is often diagnosed. But this does not mean that the disease has developed dramatically. Most likely, the patient simply ignored the symptoms of prediabetes for many years, thereby exhausting the body.
Signs on SD:
- dry mouth;
- slow healing of wounds and skin abrasions;
- frequent urge to go to the toilet;
- rapid fatigue;
If at least one of the symptoms is manifested, it is recommended to visit an endocrinologist for an analysis to exclude or confirm the presence of a disorder. Diagnosis is quite simple - delivery of venous and capillary blood. If you know the symptoms and the treatment will be effective.
Diabetes is more common in the following categories of people:
- age over 40;
- overweight by abdominal type;
- malnutrition, when light carbohydrates (sweets, flour products) dominate the diet;
- sedentary lifestyle without proper physical activity;
- high blood pressure;
- the presence of diabetes in relatives.
When treating a "sweet" disease, it is necessary to strictly adhere to a diet aimed at lowering blood sugar.
>A correctly formulated therapeutic diet, combined with moderate physical activity, will become the most important treatment for diabetes. One of the main rules is not to starve and not to overeat. The number of meals is six times a day. Last supper at least a few hours before bedtime.
Type 2 diabetes Diet and nutritional therapy stabilize blood sugar levels. Up to half of the daily diet should be vegetables. The daily menu must also contain cereals, fruit, meat or fish and dairy products.
A diabetic's body suffers from a lack of vitamins and minerals. This is due to an error in metabolic processes, not only in the endocrine system. That's why it's so important to eat a balanced diet.
From the above, the main principles of the diet can be distinguished:
- small meals, six times a day;
- minimum fluid intake - two liters;
- do not starve and do not overeat;
- dinner should be light, it is worth limiting yourself to a glass of fermented milk product or 150 grams of cottage cheese;
- fruit must be included in the breakfast;
- when preparing vegetable dishes, use only seasonal products;
- choose products according to GI.
All diabetic foods should have a low glycemic index. Endocrinologists adhere to this indicator when composing diet therapy.
In addition to observing the principles of nutrition, one should not forget about the permitted heat treatment, which is aimed at the absence of bad cholesterol in dishes.
Cooking is permitted in the following ways:
- for a couple;
- in the microwave;
- bake in the oven;
- in a multicooker;
- the stew with a small amount of vegetable oil.
It is necessary to study the concept of GI separately and learn on your own how to form a diet based on personal taste preferences.
After all, the selection of products for diabetics is quite extensive and allows you to prepare many healthy dishes.
GI of products in diet therapy
The glycemic index is a measure that reflects the effect of a particular food on raising blood sugar levels after eating it. Products with a low GI contain complex digestible carbohydrates, which are not only necessary for the patient, but also give him a feeling of satiety for a long time.
Diabetics must choose from the food categories that have a low GI. Food with an average indicator can be in the diet only occasionally, no more than twice a week. Products with a high GI are able to raise the glucose level to 4 mmol/l in a fairly short time.
The glycemic index of foods is divided into three categories. But in addition to this value, you must pay attention to the calorie content of the food. So some foods have a value of zero units, but at the same time contain bad cholesterol and high calorie content.
A light will take fat, which does not contain carbohydrates and has 0 units, but it is categorically contraindicated for diabetics. GI division:
- 0 - 50 units - low;
- 50 - 69 units - medium;
- over 70 units - high.
There is a special table of products with indexes to make it easier for the patient to make a menu for himself. Some products after heat treatment can significantly increase the index - these are beets and carrots. They are allowed raw, but cooked during the ban.
Therapeutic diet allows you to prepare dishes from such vegetables:
- all varieties of cabbage - white and red, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli;
- string beans and asparagus;
Many people are used to having potatoes on the table. But with a "sweet" disease, it is better to refuse it because of the high GI. In very rare cases, where it is still decided to use the tubers, they must be soaked in water overnight in advance. Thus, you can get rid of starch and slightly reduce the index.
Vegetables for a diabetic are a source of vitamins, trace elements and fibre. They prepare not only fresh salads, but also side dishes as well as complex dishes. It is permissible to diversify the taste qualities with greens - spinach, lettuce, oregano, basil, dill and parsley.
Fruit is an equally important part of the diet. The daily permissible norm should not exceed 150 - 200 grams. Fruits, even with a low index, cannot be juiced. With this treatment, they lose fiber and glucose quickly enters the bloodstream.
When dieting, the following fruits and berries are allowed:
- black and red currants;
- all varieties of citrus fruits - orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, pomelo and lime;
- sweet cherries;
There are many valuable substances in dried fruit, no more than 50 grams per day is allowed. Dried fruits are good to add to cereals, and thereby create a complete meal. Dried fruits with low GI - dried apricots, prunes and figs.
Meat, offal, fish and shellfish are also a daily part of the menu. At the same time, fish should be present at least three times in the weekly diet. Choose lean meat and fish. The skin and the remains of fat are removed from those in which there are no vitamins, but only bad cholesterol.
Endocrinologists recommend the following products:
- rabbit meat;
- chicken liver;
- beef liver;
- beef tongue;
- beef lungs.
There are no restrictions on the choice of fish and shellfish. From fish you can choose pollock, hake, pike or perch.
Grains are a source of energy, so they give a feeling of satiety for a long time. Some of them have a high GI, especially white rice. Its alternative will be brown (brown) rice, whose GI is 50 units. It takes a little longer to cook – about 45 minutes.
Barley is considered the most valuable grain, its GI is only 22 units. Other types of grain are also allowed:
- barley groats;
- wheat porridge.
By the way, the thicker the porridge, the lower its index.
There are few restrictions on dairy and sour milk products. All are based on the fat content of products. Therefore, it would be rational to reject sour cream, margarine and butter.
If with the help of diet therapy it is not possible to achieve the desired results, the doctor is forced to prescribe hypoglycemic drugs. Their choice in the pharmaceutical market is extensive.
Self-medication is prohibited, as all pills have their own side effects. Only an endocrinologist can choose the right pills for the patient, taking into account his characteristics of the body and the course of the disease.
The purpose of hypoglycemic drugs is to stimulate pancreatic cells to increase the production of the hormone insulin, so that it is in the blood in the required amount.
If in this case it is not possible to normalize the level of glucose in the blood, the therapy includes several groups of hypoglycemic tablets.
In the case of type 2 diabetes, treatment should include possible physical activity. This serves as an excellent compensation for high sugar levels.
That is, when you do sports in the body, all metabolic processes are accelerated and glucose is absorbed faster.
You should devote at least half an hour a day to this lesson. If you cannot exercise daily, at least walk in the fresh air for forty minutes.
You can choose the following types of physical activity for type 2 diabetics:
- Pole walking;
- sports walks;
If a person wants to study at home, on the Internet there are many video courses dedicated specifically to diabetics.
If the training takes place outside the home, and after them there is a feeling of hunger, then it is allowed to make an extra meal - a snack. An ideal option would be 50 grams of nuts, which contain nutritious protein, have a low GI and perfectly fight the appetite. Just do not exceed the allowed daily allowance, because such a product is high in calories.
From all of the above, it should be concluded that the manifestation of diabetes can be minimized by using only two rules: follow the principles of diet therapy for diabetes and exercise regularly.